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Environmental manipulation differentially alters c-Fos expression in amygdaloid nuclei following aversive conditioning.
Brain Res. 2002: 957 (1) s.91-98, il., bibliogr. 50 poz.
Hasła klasyfikacyjne GBL:
psychiatria i psychologia
praca opublikowana za granicą
This study analyzes the impact of environmental complexity in adult rats on their emotional behavior and c-Fos expression (a transcription factor protein implicated in neuronal plasticity) in various subdivisions of amygdala, as well as selected parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus. The animals were housed for 60 days in either enriched or impoverished conditions and then one group of rats was tested in an open field test, and a second group of rats was treated to footshock-motivated aversive training. Two and 24 h later, the animals from the second group, along with the appropriate controls, were sacrificed and their brains were used for the immunocytochemical analysis of c-Fos levels. We found that this long-term environmental manipulation exerts significant effects on animals' emotionality and this behavioral diference is accompanied by the differential c-Fos activation (at 2 h after the aversive training) in the amygdala, a brain structure believed to subserve emotional reactions. On the other hand, no difference was found in c-Fos expression between both groups of animals in the thalamus and hypothalamus. At 24 h after the training, c-Fos levels were down to the values observed in naive rats that did not differentiate between enriched versus impoverished breeding conditions. These results may help to explain differential emotional aspects of behavior that arise following differential housing conditions of adult animals.
Tonal nitric oxide and health - a free radical and a scavenger of free radicals.
Med. Sci. Monitor 2002: 8 (1) s.RA1-RA4, bibliogr. 68 poz.
Basal/tonal nitric oxide (NO) production helps maintain particular microenvironments, i.e., vascular. Besides NO's function in controlling the activation state of various tissues such as immune cells, its presence appears to modulate other free radical levels, i.e., H2O2, in these same tissues and indeed these processes may be one and the same. Thus, by being a free radical, along with the ability to scavenge other free radicals. NO is placed in a pivotal regulatory position. We surmise that in the absence of adequate NO release other free radicals may go 'unchecked' and, therefore, initiate tissue damage. Furthermore, under these circumstances, proinflammatory events will occur due to heightened cell sensitivity and a diminished control of NF-kB. In an excess situation, and one without an appropriate cirucmstance, i.e., microbial acation, NO may baecome the harmful agent. Hence, balancing basal NO production in body compartments may represent a fundamental process in maintaining general, long-term health.
Tonal nitric oxide and health: anti-bacterial and -viral actions and implications for HIV.
Med. Sci. Monitor 2002: 8 (2) s.RA27-RA31, tab., bibliogr. 46 poz.
Hasła klasyfikacyjne GBL:
Nitric oxide has been shown to have important physiological regulatory roles, i.e., vasodilation, neurotransmitter release, etc. Now, we review its role as an antibacterial and antiviral agent. Nitric oxide has also been identified as an improtant factor in the development of nonspecific immunity. And accordingly, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the catalytic wnzyme producing nitric oxide, is a key element in the protective activities of nitric oxide. The expression of inducible (i) NOS is regulated by cytokines. iNOS-derived nitric oxide was found to contribute to both early and late phases of antibacterial activity. Enzymes, such as proteases (reverse transcriptases, and ribonucleotide reductase, etc.) containing cysteine residues, appear to be targets for nitric oxide nitrosylation, as well as viral-encoded transcription factors that are involved in viral replication. It would appear than thiss multifunctional signaling molecule is not only involved with signaling between cells, it also appears to maintain the immediate environment free of microbial agents.
Loss of heterozygosity in primary lung cancer using laser capture microdissection and WAVE DNA fragment analysis techniques.
Med. Sci. Monitor 2002: 8 (3) s.BR95-BR99, il., bibliogr. 22 poz.
Hasła klasyfikacyjne GBL:
dorośli 19-44 r.ż.
dorośli 45-64 r.ż.
dorośli = 65 r.ż.
Background: A number of molecular changes observed by varied conventional methods, including loss of heterzygosity (LOH) on chromosome 3, have been associated with primary lung cancer. To further define the locus of chromosome 3p allele loss in lung cancer, we performed LOH study by using innovative laser capture microdissection and WAVE DNA Fragment Analysis. Mateiral/Methods: Thirty-eight paired specimens from patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung were used for this study. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from normal stromal cells or lymphocytes and adenocarcinoma were collected using laser capture microdissection. DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR using six polymorphic DNA markers for chromosome 3. PCR products were analyzed by both gel electrophoresis and WAVE DNA Fragment Analysis. Results: LOH at 3p22-24 was found in tumor cells from twelve out of thirty-eight patients (32 p.c.) when analyzed by WAVE DNA Fragment Analysis and LOH was found in tumor cells from nine out of thirty-eight patients (23 p.c.) when analyzed by gel electrophoresis. LOH was found in normal control from one out of thirty-eight patients. Conclusions: 1. Our results suggest putative tumor suppressor gene(s) is present in a region at 3p22-24, which may play a role in carcinogenesis of lung cancer. 2. Laser capture microdissection is essential tool for defined LOH studies. 3. WAVE DNA Fragment Analysis is an accurate, sensitive and automated tool for analysis of DNA fragments.
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