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Tonal nitric oxide and health - a free radical and a scavenger of free radicals.
Med. Sci. Monitor 2002: 8 (1) s.RA1-RA4, bibliogr. 68 poz.
Basal/tonal nitric oxide (NO) production helps maintain particular microenvironments, i.e., vascular. Besides NO's function in controlling the activation state of various tissues such as immune cells, its presence appears to modulate other free radical levels, i.e., H2O2, in these same tissues and indeed these processes may be one and the same. Thus, by being a free radical, along with the ability to scavenge other free radicals. NO is placed in a pivotal regulatory position. We surmise that in the absence of adequate NO release other free radicals may go 'unchecked' and, therefore, initiate tissue damage. Furthermore, under these circumstances, proinflammatory events will occur due to heightened cell sensitivity and a diminished control of NF-kB. In an excess situation, and one without an appropriate cirucmstance, i.e., microbial acation, NO may baecome the harmful agent. Hence, balancing basal NO production in body compartments may represent a fundamental process in maintaining general, long-term health.
Tonal nitric oxide and health: anti-bacterial and -viral actions and implications for HIV.
Med. Sci. Monitor 2002: 8 (2) s.RA27-RA31, tab., bibliogr. 46 poz.
Hasła klasyfikacyjne GBL:
Nitric oxide has been shown to have important physiological regulatory roles, i.e., vasodilation, neurotransmitter release, etc. Now, we review its role as an antibacterial and antiviral agent. Nitric oxide has also been identified as an improtant factor in the development of nonspecific immunity. And accordingly, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the catalytic wnzyme producing nitric oxide, is a key element in the protective activities of nitric oxide. The expression of inducible (i) NOS is regulated by cytokines. iNOS-derived nitric oxide was found to contribute to both early and late phases of antibacterial activity. Enzymes, such as proteases (reverse transcriptases, and ribonucleotide reductase, etc.) containing cysteine residues, appear to be targets for nitric oxide nitrosylation, as well as viral-encoded transcription factors that are involved in viral replication. It would appear than thiss multifunctional signaling molecule is not only involved with signaling between cells, it also appears to maintain the immediate environment free of microbial agents.
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